Gold Standard Cleaning For X-Ray Aprons & Lead Wearables

What Does Gold Standard Cleaning Look Like For X-Ray Aprons And Lead Wearables?

Thus far in this lead apron based blog series, we have examined the infection issues and concerns associated with contaminated lead x-ray aprons and the science behind how staff members can easily test such surfaces for contamination using ATP testing.

This third blog entry will examine methodologies and practices utilized by clinical staff and facilities in the “cleaning” and maintenance of these protective lead wearables, and also explore what “cleaning” such a surface really entails. In discussing bioburden levels in the previous blog, we addressed how one cannot judge cleanliness on a surface by appearance alone.  Let’s take a deeper dive into what it means to truly clean and sanitize these protective, lead garments.

Survey Says…

In researching the topic, speaking with professionals at symposiums and inquiring with colleagues and peers, there is little consistency across the continuum of care with how these garments are cleaned and/or serviced. Shockingly, a number of Radiology, Cath Lab and Operating Room staff have lamented that such surfaces “never” get cleaned, while other staff and administrators have shared that such surfaces are sometimes cleaned, “when the case load is light on a Friday” or “on the midnight shift by the environmental services department.” Both patient and staff safety are at risk due to lack of staff compliance and clinical efficacy issues posed through improper cleaning practices.

Online research lead to a few administrators sharing that they ran these lead aprons through a cart washer, which lead manufacturing companies clearly advise not to do. Clinicians have also shared that they try to use products such as Lysol or Febreeze to “eliminate the odors” yet admit the lead wearables still aren’t “clean.” One of the more popular concepts considered in attempting to clean and service these wearables entails the discussion of “using sanitizing wipes” on such high-touch surfaces.  Unfortunately, the use of these wipes alone does not properly clean and sanitize the garments.

Pesky Directions

There are a number of sanitizing/disinfecting wipes on the market that some clinicians claim to use on lead aprons and wearables. When taking a closer look at the labels on these products, one may very well discover that most wipes are actually not recommended for use on lead wearables. Additionally, some wipes contain bleach and corrosive agents, which are both advised not to be used on aprons, according to the companies that manufacture them. A majority of the wipes on the market today are indicated for use on “non-porous” surfaces such as tables, bed rails, door handles, etc. rather than a porous surface such as a nylon covering of a lead wearable. Though the use of wipes might afford convenience to the user, the real issue with doing so lies in their clinical inefficiency in successfully cleaning the surface, not to mention completely removing any bioburden.

Wax Then Wash?

If your car had dirt, road tar and bird droppings on it, would you attempt to wax it in that condition?

For best outcomes, you would first clean and remove those elements before attempting to wax the car.  The same is true for other surfaces, including lead wearables.  Professionals who routinely assess bioburden understand the importance of a proper cleaning before sanitizing or disinfecting an item.  If an item is not properly cleaned and organic matter remains, nutrients also  remain to better foster the growth of surviving bacteria or future bacterial contamination.  This is by definition a risk factor for increased hospital associated infections.

All You Can Eat Buffet

In watching the news of late, one can gather that the world of microbiology is ever changing.  Bacteria are highly adept at persisting.  Through changes in their DNA they can gain antibiotic and/or antiseptic resistance, and these changes can happen through mutations or through integration of foreign DNA, but where would they find foreign DNA?  When bacteria die and the cells break open, then the DNA is accessible to the remaining bacteria.

The Problem with Sanitizing and Disinfecting Wipes

When facilities only use wipes on a surface and don’t completely remove the debris, they are in essence creating an “all you can eat buffet” for the surviving bacteria to thrive upon. If the dead bacteria had antibiotic or antiseptic resistance markers, now that DNA is fair game for susceptible bacteria to gain resistance!   In fact, numerous studies have shown that certain bacteria can pick up various genes from different species that makes them more pathogenic (either by making it antibiotic resistant, antiseptic resistant, or by allowing it to survive in a host better).

Layers Of Bacteria? Gross?

As if that wasn’t scary enough, what if I told you that some bacteria could gain antibiotic and antiseptic tolerance simply by growing?  (IT IS TRUE!)

Some bacteria can attach to a surface (particularly porous or textured surfaces such as lead wearables) and as they grow and form groups of bacteria (colonies) that can then form a biofilm.  Biofilms are clusters of bacteria that have attached and produced an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) which are essentially a protective coating.

Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS)

EPS consists of DNA, proteins, lipids (fats) and polysaccharides (sugars).  This coating protects the bacteria inside the human body from cells that can either tag the bacteria for destruction or destroy the bacteria outright.  Externally (on a surface) it can protect the bacteria from anti-microbial drugs or antiseptic agents.  In fact, bacterial biofilms are 10 – 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics than there standalone bacterial counterparts.  Their EPS is essentially a bacterial Teflon coating.  This Teflon coating only gets stronger when multiple species of bacteria co-inhabit the same biofilm, and if these attributes weren’t scary enough, bacteria in a biofilm can sense their microenvironment and may even produce toxins while in a biofilm that they wouldn’t normally produce.

Biofilm Life Cycle

Like all living things, biofilms have a life cycle, and a part of that life cycle involves dispersion of some bacteria that are then free to go and attach elsewhere, including in a human host. In 2007, the National Institutes of Health estimated that approximately 80% of chronic infections were biofilm related; thus, biofilms remain a serious problem in many facilities. When surfaces such as the nylon covering of a lead wearable are not cleaned properly, it allows different bacteria to begin to congregate.

Layers of Bacteria

Thinking this all sounds like something from a fictional book or movie, as if biofilms can only exist in some weird lab conditions or in some rare disease?  Nope!!!!

The most common example of a biofilm is one that everyone is probably familiar with, but may not realize is a biofilm, is dental plaque!  Biofilms are so hard to remove from surfaces that companies have spent millions of dollars trying to prevent their formation.  If you think about dental plaque, it makes sense.  We brush our teeth twice a day to best prevent plaque.  Unfortunately, when it comes to medical devices or any surface (particularly a porous or textured surface) in a medical treatment facility (such as lead wearables), biofilms can form once the surface is exposed to organic matter such as blood.  Now with the mental picture of layers of bacteria (such as plaque) on surfaces in medical treatment facilities, consider that some high-touch surfaces, such as radiological shields and aprons have not been properly cleaned for years (if ever!)

Elbow Grease Helps Break Up Biofilms

Biofilms are so tolerant of antimicrobials and antiseptics, that even the CDC positions the best way to remove a biofilm is to disrupt it physically, and they have included the ‘use of friction’ in their definition for proper cleaning.  Studies have been done that show that physically disrupting the biofilm by using friction is the primary means for destruction of the layers and thus removal of the biofilm.  (In the example of dental plaque, this would be equivalent of one going to the dentist and having them scrape the teeth in order to remove the plaque.)  The procedural process and outcomes are different when looking at the process of “cleaning” and “sanitizing” and it takes both of these separate processes to eradicate biofilms from porous, high touch surfaces. The surface on a lead wearable first needs to be cleaned before it can then be sanitized.

  • Cleaning – According to the CDC, cleaning entails the use of EPA registered products, coupled with the use of friction to physically remove dirt, microorganisms and bioburden and then removing/rinsing them away from the surface. Though a vast majority of the bioburden is removed during this process, the cleaning process does not always remove 100% of all bioburden & microorganisms.
  • Sanitizing – This process then “inactivates” 99.9% of all remaining microorganisms on environmental surfaces if allowed to sit visibly wet or “dwell” on the surface for the recommended amount of “dwell time” as per manufacturer instructions and guidelines.

Cleaning and Sanitizing really can’t be done in one-step, let alone with just a wipe. When you go to the dentist, the first step in the process is to scrape the plaque from the teeth before they are polished, just like your car needs to be adequately washed and dried, before it can be then waxed. Cleaning and sanitizing of a neglected surface such as a lead apron cannot be accomplished in one step either. In an effort to address such biofilms “head on” X-Ray apron servicing companies, such as Radiological Care Services (IN) are implementing multi-step, cleaning and sanitization programs for X-ray aprons and lead wearables. These programs are built in accordance with governing bodies, such as the CDC, JCAHO, AORN and HFAP, which position that surfaces should first be cleaned, before attempting to sanitize or disinfect them.

Stay Tuned For The Next Post

Stay tuned for the next follow up blog post, as we look specifically at what policies, regulations and expectations these governing bodies have of high touch surfaces, such as X-ray aprons and lead wearables. Between now and then, go brush your teeth and think about the layers of bacteria building up on lead wearables and aprons as they continue to invite bacteria to the biofilm party!

About The Author:

Kathleen R. Jones received her BS from Purdue University (West Lafayette) in Biology specializing in Genetics and Microbiology.   After working for five years in Quality Control she then completed her MS at Purdue University in Indianapolis.  Her growing interest in Infectious Diseases lead her to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences where she obtained a Doctorate in Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Kathleen has a passion for progressive sciences and initiatives, and employs her keen understanding of the biofilm formation and elimination processes into her research and work.

How Do I Select The Right Laser Eye Protection?

LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers emit a narrow beam of light and that beam of light is emitted in short bursts and focuses precisely on the desired target. The energy emitted by the laser can be absorbed, scattered, transmitted or reflected. When used in medical procedures, lasers transmit most of their energy to the intended target and that is why proper laser eye protection is so important.

The Eye is Vulnerable to Laser Radiation

The human eye is extremely vulnerable to laser radiation. When working with medium to high-powered laser systems, it is vital to wear the correct laser eye protection for the specified laser type. Unprotected exposure to lasers can result in the development of cataracts or even a corneal burn, which can ultimately result in vision loss. By selecting and wearing the appropriate pair of laser safety glasses, medical personnel can keep their eyes protected from applications and procedures that require a laser system. Protective laser safety glasses must be matched in terms of wavelength frequency and the type of laser being used (e.g., YAG laser glasses, Holmium laser glasses) for your specific application. That is why it is important to understand the consequences of laser radiation exposure.

3 Ways Lasers Can Damage Your Eyes

There are three ways that lasers can damage your eyes including thermal, photochemical, and mechanical damage. Laser safety glasses provide valuable laser eye protection by shielding vulnerable eye tissue from the high-intensity radiation emitted. Laser safety glasses are not only a vital safety component, they are also required in all facilities where medical, surgical, cosmetic or dental laser procedures are performed. Laser safety glasses are also used in research and forensic laboratories.

What Types of Eye Protection are Available?

There are several levels of laser eye protection available. Laser safety glasses are measured in optical density and this number reflects the ability of the filter to block the light that is transmitted at a particular wavelength. The higher the optical density, the more light from the wavelength is blocked. For example, laser safety glasses with an optical density of seven will block all but 0.00001% of the laser frequency.

How Do I Select the Right Laser Eye Protection?

Selecting the right laser eye protection may seem overwhelming; we have simplified the selection process for you by creating a white paper that discusses the eight key factors you’ll want to consider when selecting the right laser eye protection. It is extremely important to protect your eyes and yourself from the harmful effects of laser radiation. Remember, the damage done to your eyes from laser radiation exposure can be permanent. If you have any additional questions regarding how to select the right laser eye protection please comment below or email us at info@universalmedicalinc.com.

 

 

 

 

Contaminated X-Ray Aprons And The Risk Of HAIs

Contaminated, Dangerous, and Unacceptable: The Impact of Contaminated X-Ray Aprons and the Risk of Health Care-Associated Infections (HAIs)

Infection Prevention checklists today include many new areas of concern such as contamination in lab coats, neckties, telephones, remote controls, privacy curtains and more. X-ray aprons and protective lead wearables are worn throughout many different areas within a healthcare system, including the operating rooms, cath labs, radiology/imaging areas, emergency rooms and beyond. Clinical studies have proven that X-ray aprons silently carry a number of microorganisms – Dr. Jaber (Wayne State) cultured 25 lead aprons to discover 21 were colonized with Tinea species (the family of fungus that causes ringworm) and 21 were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, of which 3 aprons were colonized with MRSA (1).  

The Association of periOperative Registered Nurses (AORN) makes cleaning recommendations for items such as kick buckets, stools, patient restraints, keyboards, surgical lights and more; however, lead aprons which are routinely engulfed in sweat, blood, bodily discharge and surgical debris/residue have been consistently overlooked. Healthcare systems can no longer compromise both patient and staff safety through such perilous practices.  (Note – upcoming posts will further explore “current cleaning practices,” as well as cleaning recommendations and guidelines from National Governing Bodies such as the CDC/JCAHO/HFAP and AORN.)

Health Care-Associated Infections

HAIs are the 4th largest killer in the United States, claiming 100,000 American lives each year – more deaths than AIDS, breast cancer and auto accidents combined (2).

Hospitals are meant to be safe havens.  They are meant to be a place of refuge against disease, a place to heal and a place to recover from surgery or injury.  If that is the dream, then the nightmare would be a place in which you end up more ill than you were when you were first admitted!  Unfortunately, that nightmare becomes a reality for many unsuspecting patients and staff members today. One reason for this nightmare is the acquisition of a Health Care Associated-Infection or Hospital Acquired Infection (“nosocomial infection”).

The World Health Organization (WHO) uses a 1995 definition for a Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI):

An infection occurring in a patient in a hospital or other health facility in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission.  This includes infections acquired in the hospitals but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility (3).

HAIs in our Healthcare System

Think about it – it only makes sense that hospital acquired infections would be prevalent in our healthcare systems today.  Hospitals & medical facilities are places that people congregate when they are immunocompromised and/or are sick and in need of some type of care or treatment.

World Health Organization Study

In fact, a WHO study of various hospitals in 14 countries across Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions in the late 1980s concluded that 8.7% of patients had at least one Hospital Acquired Infection equaling 1.4 million afflicted people at any one time (4-5).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Estimate

In the United States alone, the CDC estimates roughly 1.7 million annual hospital-associated infections, from all types of microorganisms including bacteria combined, cause or contribute to 100,000 deaths each year (6). In fact, approximately 1 in 25 hospital patients has a hospital acquired infection at any one time (7). While these statistics are startling and horrifying, sadly they do not paint the complete picture. These statistics are patient specific and do not include the number of healthcare workers and hospital staff who have also acquired Hospital Acquired Infections.

Economic Impact of HAIs

Such infections lead to additional stress, longer hospital stays, lost wages for healthcare providers and higher morbidity and mortality rates overall.  HAIs also have a HUGE economic impact.  In addition to being the 4th largest killer in America, it is estimated Hospital Acquired Infections will cost the healthcare system an additional $30 Billion (2).

Why do HAIs Occur? 

We live in a medically advanced society, so why do Health Care Associated-Infections still run rampant, and what are we doing about them?  That is a good question, but the answer is multifaceted.  The first point to consider is that patients are usually immunocompromised when in need of healthcare services. They are either already ill or they have had a procedure that puts immense stress on their bodies, e.g., a joint replacement, major illness or other surgical procedure or treatment. 

As wonderful as modern medicine is, it is not without risks.  In fact, many diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures involve the use of a medical device, e.g, catheters, intubation tubing, scopes, etc. These devices and even many “non-critical” surfaces and “high touch objects” such as X-ray aprons and lead wearables can become contaminated when not properly cleaned and sanitized.

Healthcare facilities are a place where sick and immunocompromised patients regularly navigate and patients are often transferred between units/floors.  This allows infectious agents to travel to different areas in a hospital and expose multiple people, including patients, family and staff members.

Infectious Agents

Infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi) present their own issues.  There are species that form spores that are resistant to most mechanisms of eradication. Kramer’s group recently performed a meta-analysis of the literature and summarized that most clinically relevant species of viruses could easily survive on dry, inanimate surfaces for between a few HOURS to DAYS and clinically relevant bacterial and fungal species could survive for DAYS to MONTHS (8).  The longer the infectious agent can be found in the environment the greater the chance that it can be passed to a new host.

The Need for New Policies/Protocols

Unfortunately, Health Care-Associated Infections (HAIs) are still a substantial source of morbidity and mortality throughout the healthcare continuum today.  While recent initiatives such as improved hand washing policies have helped that burden, there are additional new policies/protocols with regards to cleaning that need to be implemented in order to address other critical “high touch objects” such as X-ray aprons and lead wearables.

Education and Awareness

Through education and open-mindedness, we can bring awareness to the importance of following the cleaning recommendations of the governing bodies, such as the CDC/JCAHO/AORN and HFAP.  In knowing that infectious agents can still adapt to become drug resistant, antiseptic resistant, and increase their ability to survive in the environment, so, we too must adapt and be open minded to new concepts in our vigilant fight against hospital acquired infections.

Oft-Overlooked: X-Ray Aprons and Lead Wearables

X-ray aprons and lead wearables can no longer be overlooked, and they will need a renewed commitment to servicing. They need to be properly cleaned prior to sanitization efforts, in accordance with the guidelines of the CDC & JCAHO.  In my next blog entry, we’ll dive into the science behind testing X-ray aprons for the presence of microorganisms and examine how these surfaces are measured and evaluated.

SPOILER ALERT – If you think you have an idea of how contaminated such surfaces are inside of our healthcare systems, you will be in for a SURPRISE!

About The Author:

Kathleen R. Jones received her BS from Purdue University (West Lafayette) in Biology specializing in Genetics and Microbiology.   After working for five years in Quality Control she then completed her MS at Purdue University in Indianapolis.  Her growing interest in Infectious Diseases lead her to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences where she obtained a Doctorate in Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Kathleen has a passion for progressive sciences and initiatives, and employs her keen understanding of the biofilm formation and elimination processes into her research and work.

Sources:

  1. Jaber, M., M. Harvill, E. Qiao.  2014.  Lead aprons worn by interventional radiologists contain pathogenic organisms including MRSA and tinea species.  Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology.  25:3:S99-S100.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2013.12.279
  2. “What is RID?” Committee to Reduce Infection Deaths.  n.p.  d.p.  Web.  Nov 7, 2014.  http://www.hospitalinfection.org/objective.shtml
  3. Benenson, AS.  1995.  Control of communicable diseases manual.  16th edition.  Washington, American Public Health Association.
  4. Tikomirov, E.  1987. WHO Programme for the Control of Hospital Infections.  Chemiotherapia. 3:148-151.
  5. Mayon-White, RT, G.  Ducel, T. Kereselidze, E. Tikomirov.  1988.  An internal survey of the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection.  J. Hosp. Infect.  11 (SupplementA): 43-48
  6. Klevens, RM, JR Edwards, CL Richards, TC Horan, RP Gaynes, DA Pollock, DM Cardo.  2007.  Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002.  Public Health Rep 122:160-166
  7. Magill, SS, JR Edwards, W Bamber, ZG Beldavs, G Dumyati, MA Kainer, R Lynfield, M Maloney, L McAllister-Hollod, J Nadle, SM Ray, DL Thompson, LE Wilson, SK Fridkin.  2014.  Multistate Point-Prevalence Survey of Health Care-Associated Infections.  N Engl J Med 370:1198-1208
  8. Kramer, A., I. Schwebke, and G. Kampf.  2006.  How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A Systemic Review. BMC Infectious Diseases.  6:130  Doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-6-130

Discover Gucci Radiation Resistant Glasses

Are you fashion savvy?

Have you been searching for a fashionable way to protect your eyes from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation?

Then look no further.

Gucci radiation resistant glasses have arrived. Gucci, a name synonymous with high-fashion and stylish sophistication is the latest addition to our radiation protection eyewear line.

Gucci’s styles for women range from the lightweight nylon frames of the Gucci GG 3547/S, to the bold, full-rimmed frame of the Gucci GG 3574/S.

For men, available styles include the classic Gucci GG1000/S full-rimmed acetate frame and the GG 1856/S ultra-sleek wrap frame.

Radiation resistant glasses never looked so good.

Women’s Radiation Resistant Glasses

Gucci GG 3547/S

The Gucci GG 3547/S (shown above) frames are made of lightweight, durable blended nylon for added comfort and flexibility. Unlike the brittle nylon eyeglass frames of the late 1940s, blended nylon frames are more resistant to breakage and are inherently stronger than their predecessor. Consequently, blended nylon frames are ideal for those looking for a high-quality, durable, and resilient frame.

The round shape of these frames subtly draws attention to the eyes and are well-suited for those with diamond-shaped faces. The ‘simultaneous contrast’ of the red and green temples, juxtaposing complementary colors, creates a stunning visual effect. The decorative, high-set temples are emblazoned with the iconic Gucci label (white lettering) on a bold red background. For those who have been seeking a distinctive and sophisticated pair of radiation resistant glasses, your journey finally may be nearing its end.

 

Gucci GG 3574/S

The epitome of Italian luxury, the Gucci GG 3574/S rectangular frame is bold and distinctive. The hypoallergenic black optyl frame is specially coated to resist sweat and cosmetics. These Gucci radiation resistant glasses seamlessly blend fashion, elegance, and sophistication into an integral piece of personal radiation protective equipment. A trendy frame for those who are unwilling to sacrifice style but understand the importance of properly protecting their eyes from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.

Have you been searching for radiation eye protection that is functional, yet fashionable?

Your search is over.

These Gucci radiation resistant frames are the answer.

Offering the industry standard 0.75mm lead equivalency, the SCHOTT radiation resistant safety glass lenses will protect your eyes from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.

According to the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), “Many years or decades could pass before radiation-induced eye lens injuries become apparent. At relatively high exposures of a few Gy* , lens opacities may occur after many years¹.”

Ensure that your eyes are properly protected by wearing the appropriate radiation resistant glasses. In a 2010 study, Comparing Strategies For Operator Eye Protection In The Interventional Radiography Suite, “The use of leaded glasses alone reduced the lens dose rate by a factor of 5 to 10.” Reduce your risk of developing cataracts, while staying fashionable and safe with Gucci radiation resistant glasses.

Sources:

Thornton RH, Dauer LT, Altamirano JP, Alvardo KJ, St Germain J, Solomon SB. (2010) Comparing Strategies For Operator Eye Protection In The Interventional Radiography Suite.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20920841

IAEA | Radiation Protection of Patients (RPOP) Radiation and cataract: Staff protection

http://rpop.iaea.org/RPOP/RPoP/Content/InformationFor/HealthProfessionals/6_OtherClinicalSpecialities/radiation-cataract/Radiation-and_cataract.htm

Gray (Unit)

Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gray_(unit)

*Gy = Gray, is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI). It is a measure of the absorbed dose and is defined and is defined as the absorption of one joule of radiation energy by one kilogram of matter (0.01 Gy is equivalent to 1 rad).

3 Different Types Of Prescription Lead Glasses

For those who wear corrective lenses and need to protect their eyes from radiation, we offer three different prescription lens types for our lead glasses. After reading this post you will understand the different types of prescription lens types that we offer, eyeglass prescription terminology, and what prescription information is needed to properly place your order.

Before placing your order, it is important for you to understand the differences between the various corrective lenses before making your decision. Lead glasses provide you with the necessary eye protection to help reduce your risk of developing cataracts from prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation. In the past, those who wore corrective lenses would often be required to wear bulky radiation safety goggles or fit over lead glasses. However, a number of the lead glasses that we now offer are available with various types of prescription lens.

Prescription lens types:

  • Single vision prescription lenses
  • Lined bifocal prescription lenses
  • Progressive bifocal lenses

Single Vision

Single vision prescription lenses have the same magnification throughout and correct for only one distance. These lenses are designed to correct conditions such as myopia (nearsightedness¹), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism². Our single vision prescription radiation safety lenses offer the industry standard 0.75mm lead equivalency and are manufactured using SCHOTT SF-6 HT radiation resistant glass.

How do I know if I have a single vision prescription?

To illustrate, an example of a single vision prescription is shown below. While reviewing the sample prescription, you may notice several abbreviations, listed below are common terms found on eyeglass prescriptions. If your prescription doesn’t have any values or abbreviations in the ADD column, you have a single vision prescription.

 Single Vision Prescription Lenses
RxSPHERICALCYLINDRICALAXIS
O.D.-2.00-0.5040
O.S.-1.75
Pupillary Distance65

Prescription Abbreviations & Terminology 

  • OD – Oculus Dexter, from the Latin word dexter meaning “right”, means the right eye.
  • OS – Oculus Sinister, sinister which is derived from the Latin word sinistra meaning “left hand”, means the left eye.
  • SPH – Spherical, is the main strength of the lens prescription, and is written in 0.25 increments. It is also referred to as power and is abbreviated as PWR.
  • CYL – Cylinder, this will only appear on your prescription if you have an astigmatism, and is written in 0.25 increments. It is possible that this will only apply to one eye. If you don’t have an astigmatism, your doctor may leave this field blank, or they may choose to put ‘00’, ‘DS’, SPH’, or ‘Plano’ in this field. If the field has one of those abbreviations you will know that you don’t have an astigmatism correction in one or both eyes.
  • AX – Axis can be abbreviated as AX, or simply X. If the cylinder field is left blank or has any of the following abbreviations including ‘00’, ‘DS’, SPH’, or ‘Plano’, this field will be left blank or have an ‘0’.
  • PD – Pupillary distance or interpupillary distance (IPD) is the distance (industry standard is in millimeters) between your right pupil and left pupil. The PD is usually written in the lower row labeled P.D. on your prescription.

Single-Vision Pupillary Distance

  • Binocular P.D. – 65
  • Monocular P.D. – 30/30.5  (OS/OD)

Bifocal/Progressive Pupillary Distance Binocular

  • Near/Reading P.D. – 62
  • Distance P.D. – 65

The American Optometric Association states that Astigmatism is a vision condition that causes blurred vision due either to the irregular shape of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, or in other cases the curvature of the lens inside the eye. Astigmatism is a particularly common vision condition.

Lined Bifocal

Bifocal prescriptions are for patients who have difficulty seeing both far and near. They are commonly prescribed to individuals with presbyopia who also require a correction for myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism. As their name suggests, lined bifocals offer distance correction on the upper portion of the lens, and near vision correction on the bottom portion of the lens. Lined bifocal lenses, provide two distinct optical powers with different focal lengths – one for distant vision and one for near vision. The near vision lens has a semicircle (bottom) that measures 28mm wide and has a flat-top (top). Traditional lined bifocal lenses are separated by a visible line.

Progressive Bifocal

Progressive bifocals, or simply progressive lenses, allow you to experience bifocal vision without the traditional bifocal lines. Progressive lenses provide you with a more natural way of seeing. Presbyopia³ is a common vision condition for those over the age of 40 where the eye has difficulty focusing on near-field objects. Individuals who have worn traditional bifocals in the past may have experienced “image jump”, this occurs when there is an abrupt break from distance to near-field vision. Progressive bifocal lenses provide  you with optimum vision and a seamless progression of lens strength.

How do I know if I have a bifocal prescription?

If you notice that there are numbers in the ADD column of your prescription, you have a bifocal prescription.

 Lined Bifocal/Progressive Bifocal Prescription Lenses
RxSPHERICALCYLINDRICALAXISADD
O.D.-2.00-0.5040+1.75
O.S.-1.75+2.00 PAL
Pupillary Distance65

ADD – ADD is the value commonly used for bifocal or progressive lenses. ADD indicates how much power is added to the distance prescription to create the reading-only prescription. ADD corrections will usually have the same value for both eyes. The abbreviation PAL may appear next to one of the numbers in the ADD field, or it may be written elsewhere on your prescription, this indicates that your doctor determined that you will need a different ADD correction for progressive lenses.

PAL– Progressive additive lens (ADD value specifically for progressive bifocal lenses).

Ordering Information

We hope that this post has provided you with helpful information that you will assist you during your research. To review, we covered the different types of prescription lead glasses that we offer, common terminology and abbreviations found on your prescription, and what prescription information we need to properly place your prescription lead glasses order. When ordering, please fax or email your prescription (Rx) including your pupillary distance (PD). For your convenience, prescription information can also be noted in the “Order Comments/Special Instructions” section under “Payment Information” while checking out.

Please note: Lens enhancements options are not available in combination with prescription lenses. 

Questions? Comments?

If you have any questions regarding the different types of prescription lead glasses that we offer, please feel free to contact us via live chat or simply leave a comment below.

Sources:

American Optometric Association – Eye & Vision Problems

 

Whiteboard Wednesday: Surgeon Cooling Systems

How Do Surgeons Stay Cool In The Operating Room?

Today on Whiteboard Wednesday we talk about how surgeons stay cool in the operating room. A major concern for medical staff working in the OR is fatigue caused by overheating.  Overheating is caused by the multiple layers surgeons and staff must wear for protection. During certain procedures the surgeon’s body heat is intensified, the CoolVest can help keep the surgeon more comfortable and alert.

What Is A Surgeon Cooling System?

The CoolVest System is a unique and innovative personal cooling system that is designed to keep surgeons cool and focused while performing surgery. The Single-Surgeon CoolVest System allows you to regulate your personal comfort so that you won’t perspire, suffer fatigue or lose concentration. The surgeon cooling system includes a lightweight vest that is constructed of hospital-grade ventilated nylon for maximum cooling, a variable flow control with quick-dry disconnect, wheeled cart with handle for convenient portability, and a UL listed cooler with variable flow 110V pump.

How Does The Surgeon Cooling System Work?  

The CoolVest is worn over scrubs and under surgical gowns. The tubing connection is located at the lower back of the garment to help keep the water supply tubing from interfering with the sterile field. Cooling tubes are located in the front and back of the garment for maximum cooling. The patented, thin-walled, non-kink tubing has been specifically designed for use under lead aprons.

Setup

  1. To begin, the cooling unit is filled with a mixture of approximately one gallon of water and ice (preferably block ice) or cube ice to the top of the unit.
  2. After the unit has been properly filled, you will want to attach the 8 foot insulated supply hose (quick disconnect) to the CoolVest.
  3. Apply the protective hose cover and then attach the other end of the insulated supply hose to the cooling unit.
  4. Listen for an audible click from both quick disconnect hose connections to ensure that they are properly connected.

Operation

  1. Once the supply hose has been properly protected and connected, you will want to plug the cooling unit’s electrical adapter into a grounded 110V outlet.
  2. Turn the unit on using the green On/Off power switch.
  3. Allow the unit to cycle until L.E.D indicator on Speed Control is activated (30 second pump start delay).
  4. Press “Ice Cube” on the Speed Control display on the lid of the system to start unit at desired level. L.E.D. on display will light from left to right for increased water flow. (e.g. 20-40-60-80-100% levels)
  5. To increase flow rate, press the “Ice Cube” button again, as needed, to adjust to the desired flow rate.
  6. To reset Speed Control setting: press “Ice Cube” until the surgeon cooling system stops; restart by pressing “Ice Cube” again until correct setting is indicated.

Relief From Heat While Performing Surgery

Surgeons have been impacted by excessive heat surrounding their bodies due to stress and other environmental factors. For example, neurosurgeons are required to wear appropriate radiation protective shielding (lead aprons, thyroid collars, lead glasses) while using imaging technology to protect them from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The use of these protective garments in addition to scrubs and surgical gowns can significantly increase the surgeon’s body temperature during surgical procedures. The increase in temperature can result in the surgeon becoming fatigued and perspiring during long surgeries which can reduce their focus and attention, resulting in a decrease in their ability to perform their tasks at the desired level.

Share Your Experiences

Have you experienced an increase in your body temperature while performing complicated surgeries? Interested in learning more? Make sure to check out our post on the Active Cooling Vest System For Surgeons In The OR!

How Do Lead Glasses Protect Your Eyes?

Protecting Your Eyes From Ionizing Radiation Exposure

Lead shielding is an important radiation safety principle. In fact, shielding is one of the three basic radiation safety principles. Time, distance and shielding are the primary means of eliminating or reducing ionizing radiation exposure.

Lead Shielding

Shielding should be used wherever it is necessary to reduce or eliminate radiation exposure. There are a variety of types of lead shielding options, the focus of this article will be on radiation eye protection and the use of lead glasses.

Radiation Attenuation 

Appropriate shielding placed between the source of radiation and the worker, radiation is attenuated and exposure may be completely eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level. Lead acts as a barrier to reduce x-ray’s effect by blocking or bouncing particles through a barrier material. Attenuation is the result of interactions between x-ray and matter that include absorption and scatter. Much like lead aprons which are commonly found in x-ray rooms in hospitals, lead glasses reduce radiation exposure and protect the lens of the eye.

Occupational Radiation Exposure Limits

Exposure limits have been established by the Nuclear Regulatory Committee (NRC) and set to a level where apparent injury due to ionizing radiation during a normal lifetime is unlikely. This limit is called the “maximum permissible exposure” and medical personnel should be aware of their occupational radiation dose. These occupational radiation exposure limits have been established to help minimize the amount of radiation a worker receives annually by monitoring their occupational radiation dose and keeping them under the established limits. “The exposure limit for the whole body (5,000 mrem) is lower than that for a single organ because all organs and tissues are exposed in whole body exposure, while only a single organ is involved in the single organ exposure limits¹.”

Lens of Eye (LDE) Radiation Exposure Limit

The occupational exposure limit for the lens of the eye (LDE) is 15,000 millirem or 0.15 Sieverts. The Lens of Eye Dose Equivalent (LDE) 10 CFR 20.1003 “applies to the external exposure of the lens of the eye and is taken as the dose equivalent at tissue depth of 0.3 centimeter (300 mg/cm²).”

Personal Monitoring 

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requirements regarding personal monitoring devices. Many medical personnel are required to wear an individual monitoring device to measure the dose to the whole body as well as one at an unshielded location closer to the eye to provide an accurate reading of the lens dose equivalent. Wearing lead glasses will help ensure the lenses of the eyes are properly protected from ionizing radiation thereby reducing your risk of developing cataracts.

“Radiation workers who operate x-ray machines, fluoroscopy units, certain unsealed and sealed radioisotopes or are exposed to other sources of gamma or high energy beta radiation are generally required to wear one or more dosimeters².”

Eye Protection: Reducing Tissue Reactions

Tissue reactions, previously referred to as deterministic effects or non-stochastic effects, describe a cause an effect relationship between radiation and some side-effects. There is a threshold dose, once exceeded, the severity of an effect increases with dose. Examples of tissue reactions include skin erythema, which can occur shortly after radiation exposure. Late tissue reactions, particularly those involving the lens of the eye, such as cataracts, can develop long after the initial radiation exposure, but still can be traced back to the original exposure.

Radiation-Associated Cataracts 

Two separate studies published in 2010 reported that interventional cardiology personnel have an increased risk of developing cataracts, a clouding or opacity of the eye that hinders vision. In a recent study, Radiation Cataract Risk In Interventional Cardiology Personnel (October of 2010), Vano et al tested 116 exposed interventional cardiologists, nurses, and technologists for radiation cataracts and compared them to 93 unexposed control personnel. Thirty-eight percent of the cardiologists, with a cumulative median lens dose of 6.0 Sieverts, developed cataracts, compared with 12 percent of the controls. Twenty-one percent of the other medical personnel, who were exposed to a cumulative median lens dose of 1.5 Sieverts, developed radiation-associated lens changes attributed to ionizing radiation exposure.

The second study, Risk For Radiation-Induced Cataract For Staff In Inventional Cardiology: Is there reason for concern? (November 2010)examines the prevalence of radiation-associated lens opacities among interventional cardiologists and nurses and to correlate with background radiation exposure. The results of the study demonstrated a dose dependent increased risk of posterior lens opacities for interventional cardiologists and nurses when radiation protection tools are not used. Although, a study of a larger cohort is needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest ocular radio-protection should be used.

Radiation Eye Protection 

Our eyes are one of our most valuable organs, without properly functioning eyes even the most routine tasks can become extremely difficult to complete. “Eyes are delicate and precious” says Dr. Andrew Lwach, spokesperson for the American Academy of Ophthalmology. When working near and around ionizing radiation it is important to protect your eyes from potential exposure by wearing lead glasses. Radiation safety glasses, commonly referred to as lead glasses, are designed to protect the lens of the eye by reducing the amount of radiation that is permitted to pass through the leaded glass lenses.

Conclusion 

According to a study, Comparing Strategies For Operator Eye Protection In The Interventional Radiography Suite, published in November of 2010, the “use of leaded glasses alone reduced the lens dose rate by a factor of five to 10.” The operator lens radiation dose rate was recorded with a solid-state dosimeter with nonleaded and leaded (0.75mm lead equivalent) eyeglasses. Lens dose measurements were obtained in right and left 15 degree anterior obliquities with the operator at the upper abdomen and during digital subtraction angiography (two images per second) with the operator at the patient’s groin.

Lead Glasses 

Today, lead glasses come in a wide-variety of styles and configurations including wraparound, goggles, fit over, economy, plastic, metal, and designer frames. For example, metal frames are available with frontal (lens) and lateral radiation(side shields) protection offering 0.75mm and 0.35mm lead (Pb) equivalency respectively.

The industry standard 0.75mm lead equivalency SCHOTT SF6 radiation safety glass lenses provide protection from harmful radiation exposure. The lenses have been tested (CE Certified for Radiation Reducing Eyewear) at 100 kV and have a nominal lead equivalence of 0.75mm Pb and the side shields offer a nominal lead equivalence of 0.35mm Pb at 100 kV. Lead glasses are an essential piece of personal protective equipment that will help reduce the amount of radiation exposure to your eyes.

 

3 Rugged Oakley Radiation Eye Protection Lead Glasses

New Lead Glasses From Oakley

We are excited to announce the addition of a new line of high-quality and durable radiation eye protection lead glasses from Oakley. There are three models available including the classic Oakley Straight Jacket, the Oakley Crankshaft, and the Oakley Fives Squared. These new frames are a welcomed addition to our extensive selection of radiation eye protection and that provides our customers with a stylish and unique answer to traditional radiation eye protection.

 Straight Jacket® Lead Glasses

The aggressive styling combined with over a decade worth of research has produced the Oakley Straight Jacket radiation glasses. These lightweight and durable stress resistant Straight Jacket frames utilize Oakley’s O-Matter® frame technology and are engineered to provide you with all-day comfort and performance.

Part of the Oakley active line, and available in a variety of colors, these frames offer protection that meets ANSI standards for both high-velocity and high-mass impact.

Designed to fit medium faces, the Straight Jacket frame utilizes soft Unobtanium components to increase grip with perspiration around the nose and ears, ensuring a snug fit.

For those that define style on their terms, the Oakley Straight Jacket Radiation Protection Lead Glasses provide you with unmatched comfort, performance and eye protection from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.

Crankshaft™ Lead Glasses

Fusing radiation protection with the inspired smooth styling of the popular Oakley Gascan® and Fuel Cell™ designs comes the ultimate in radiation eye protection, introducing the revolutionary Crankshaft Radiation Glasses.

The lightweight and durable stress-resistant Crankshaft frames, available in a variety of colors, utilize Oakley O-Matter frame technology providing you with all-day comfort and performance.

Part of the Oakley Lifestyle line, these wraparound frames improve side protection and are designed to comfortably fit medium to large faces.

Achieve a new level of performance and style while protecting your eyes from radiation with the innovative Crankshaft Radiation Glasses.

Fives Squared Radiation Protection Lead Glasses

Faces are not one size fits all, your radiation glasses are no exception. Introducing the Fives Squared Radiation Protection Glasses, specifically designed for small to medium faces, that feel as great as they look.

Constructed of Oakley’s lightweight and durable stress-resistant O-Matter material, this frame is engineered to provide you all-day comfort and performance by utilizing Oakleys unique condensed cranial geometry.

The patented hydrophilic Unobtainum nose pads reduce slipping by increasing grip with perspiration, providing you with a snug and secure fit.

The dimensional reliefs, metal icons and sculpturally integrated hinges with dual action cams, the Fives Squared frame is the perfect blend of sophisticated styling and performance eye protection.

When ordinary radiation protection glasses just don’t fit, look no further, the Fives Squared Radiation Glasses is your answer to comfort and protection.

Lead Glass Lenses 

All three of the frames are outfitted with SCHOTT Radiation Safety Glass Lenses that provide the industry standard 0.75 millimeter lead equivalency and are held securely in place by Oakley’s unique Three-Point Fit technology, ensuring safety and long lasting performance.

Frame Personalization 

You can leave your mark by adding the option of a personalized imprinting of up to 35 characters on the outside of the frame arm and enhance the performance of the lead glass lenses with the optional fog-free or anti-reflective coatings. These customizations and enhancements are available for all three frames.

This is an exciting addition to our radiation eye protection line-up and if you would like to be notified of any future radiation eye protection glasses subscribe to our blog and we will notify you of upcoming product releases.

5 Ways To Minimize Your Occupational Radiation Exposure

Minimizing Occupational Exposure

“The ideal dose is the least amount of radiation possible to produce an acceptable image.”

1. Time

Time is one of the three basic safety measures to reduce external radiation exposure. It is important for healthcare personnel to limit the amount of time spent in close proximity to the radiation source when exposure to the radiation source is possible. Reducing the time of an exposure reduces the effective dose (radiation) proportionally. Consequently, the less time you are around the equipment, the smaller your exposure will be.

2. Notification by Radiation Equipment Operator

Before any treatment or procedure, it is the responsibility of the trained and certified radiation equipment operator to notify healthcare personnel in the x-ray or treatment room prior to the activation of radiation producing equipment (RPE).

Any piece of equipment in which x-rays are produced electrically are classified as radiation producing equipment or RPE. These tools are used in a variety of medical applications including radiography, mammography, computed tomography, and fluoroscopy.

3. Fluoroscopic Procedures

Healthcare personnel performing fluoroscopic procedures must ensure that the patient is kept as close as possible to the image intensifier side of the fluoroscopic unit and away from the tube side of the unit. All healthcare personnel involved in the fluoroscopic procedure must stand on the image intensifier side of the fluoroscopic unit, whenever possible, to reduce the radiation exposure. Standing on the the same side as the image intensifier radiation intensity is decreased.

4. Avoid Direct Beam Exposure

Healthcare personnel assisting with radiological procedures must avoid holding the patient manually during a radiographic study due to the risk of direct beam exposure.  Any individual holding or supporting a person during radiation exposure should wear protective gloves and apron with a minimum of 0.25 millimeters lead equivalent. Under no circumstances should individuals holding or supporting a person’s part of their body be directly in the primary beam. Healthcare personnel must avoid exposing any body parts to direct x-ray beam exposure.

5. Utilize Shielding

Whenever possible, appropriate shielding should be used to provide attenuation of the radiation being delivered to the healthcare personnel who are potentially exposed. Healthcare personnel must keep all body parts out of the direct x-ray beam. There are a variety of shielding options available and may include, but are not limited to:

Specific Shielding Applications

Healthcare personnel who may have to stand with their backs exposed to the radiation beam must wear wrap-around aprons to decrease the risk of radiation exposure.

Bone and Bone Marrow Protection

When healthcare personnel are in close proximity to the radiation beam they should wear an appropriate lead or lead equivalent apron of sufficient length to shield the upper legs and protect the long bones and bone marrow from increased doses of radiation.

Thyroid Protection 

Healthcare personnel must wear a thyroid collar to protect the thyroid whenever the likelihood of the procedure places them at a higher risk of increased exposure.

Female Healthcare Personnel 

Female healthcare personnel must protect their breasts from radiation exposure by utilizing an apron that completely covers the area.

Eye protection

Healthcare personnel must shield the lens of the eye by using leaded eyeglasses with wrap-around side shields or leaded face shields to reduce scatter radiation when it is anticipated that increased fluoroscopic time may be necessary.

Limiting Radiation Exposure 

Reducing radiological exposure in healthcare settings is important for both occupational workers as well as patients. The following guidelines are based on the radiation safety principles of time, distance, and shielding. By following these guidelines, you can reduce your occupational exposure to radiation.

 

 

 

Note: This information included in this post is intended for general reference information only. The information provided is not a substitute for professional advice and should not be relied upon in the absence of such professional advice.

X-Ray Protective Apron Care: 9 Do’s And Don’ts

Proper X-Ray Protective Apron Care and Use

X-ray aprons serve a very specific purpose, to protect and shield you from the potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Shielding, one of the three concepts of basic radiation safety, should always be used when the use of time and distance principles are not possible.

Protective x-ray aprons constructed of lead or a non-lead equivalent are designed to protect the radiosensitive areas of the body when it is necessary for the healthcare worker to be near the source of radiation. Typically, x-ray aprons will offer frontal protection of 0.5 mm lead equivalency. In some instances, wrap-around x-ray aprons are required when medical personnel will have their backs exposed to the radiation source.

By learning the proper way to maintain and care for your x-ray apron, you will ensure that you are properly protected and you will extend the life of the apron. Below are the four do’s and the five don’ts of proper x-ray apron care. After reading this post, you will know how to keep your x-ray apron looking good while also keeping yourself protected against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.

X-Ray Protective Apron Do’s 

1. Inspect and Check Apron For Defects, Cracks, Creases, and Perforations 

Place the x-ray apron on a flat surface and visually check all the seams as well as the outer and inner covers of x-ray apron for any visible damage. Next, check the belts and fastening devices to confirm that they are in good condition. Lastly, inspect the surface of the apron with your hands to locate any potential lumps, cracks, sagging or separation from the apron seams. If the apron condition appears to be suspect, it should be inspected radiographically. “Rejecting an apron depends on the location, area size and number of flaws. It is best to keep the number of flaws to a minimum¹.”

Note: It is recommended that you follow the manufacturer’s recommendations and/or the state regulations regarding the proper care and use of lead protective equipment. 

2. Clean Regularly

X-ray Aprons should be cleaned daily and deodorized by scrubbing with a soft bristle brush, using cold water and a mild detergent. Completely remove cleaning residue by thoroughly rinsing with clean, cold water.

Apron Cleaning Tips

To ensure x-ray aprons are not damaged while cleaning, follow these helpful tips:

  • Never use products that contain bleach.
  • Do not soak or submerge x-ray apron in water.
  • Do not machine launder, autoclave or dry-clean.
  • Once cleaning is complete, if possible, hang the apron on the designated apron wall rack to air dry.

3. Properly Store X-Ray Aprons

The x-ray apron manufacturer’s recommendation regarding the proper handling and storage of the apron must be strictly observed. When not in use x-ray aprons must be stored on hangers to prevent cracks in the protective lead. If possible, do not store the x-ray apron on a flat surface. Aprons should be hung by the shoulder or on an approved apron hanger. Aprons should never be folded or creased, to avoid damaging the lead. “Cracks in the lead lining can develop at the fold, reducing the useful life of the apron¹.” Hook and loop fasteners must be secured properly to avoid snagging or tearing of fabric, always store apron with fasteners completely secured.

4.  Dispose Of Lead Aprons Properly

X-ray protective aprons that contain lead cannot be disposed of as municipal solid waste. Consequently, they must be disposed of as hazardous waste or recycled. The Environmental Protection Agency encourages recycling and reuse rather than disposal. According to the EPA, if the lead shield or apron can be reused by another business for its intended purpose then it remains a product, therefore it is not classified as waste or hazardous waste. Recycling the lead apron is the preferred method since it keeps the lead out of the landfill and extends the useful life of the lead apron. When recycling is not an option, you can contact a disposal service to properly dispose of the lead material.

X-Ray Protective Apron Don’ts 

5. Sit While Wearing Your Apron

Unless the x-ray apron has been designed specifically for seated procedures, you will want to avoid sitting while wearing your apron. Cracks in the lead lining can develop while wearing the apron if seated. Also, you will want to avoid sitting on the apron for the same reason.

6. Expose Apron To Extreme Temperatures 

To prevent damage to the apron, you will want to avoid exposing your x-ray apron to extreme hot or cold temperatures or to direct sunlight.

7. Lean Against Pointed Objects or Sharp Edges

Avoid storing sharp objects in the pockets. X-ray aprons can become damaged while leaning up against sharp or pointed objects, creating perforations in the lead lining and reducing the attenuating qualities of the lead.

8. Store Aprons Over Chair Backs or Equipment

Laying aprons over a chair back or piece of equipment can create creases in the lead lining and can reduce the useful life of the apron.

9. Fold Aprons

To prevent damage to the lead lining, avoid folding, wadding or creasing your x-ray apron.

Ensure Reliable Performance 

To ensure safe performance, as well as keeping your x-ray apron looking good for years to come, we strongly recommend that each x-ray protective apron is thoroughly inspected upon receipt and at regular intervals and properly stored when not in use.

X-ray aprons should be evaluated every 18-24 months to determine if replacement is needed, depending on the amount of usage and general wear and tear.  If you found this post helpful, please feel free to share this post or our SlideShare presentation with your colleagues.